Surface modification of multilayer graphene neural electrodes by local printing of platinum nanoparticles using spark ablation
In this paper, we present the surface modification of multilayer graphene neural electrodes with platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) using spark ablation. This method yields an individually selective local printing of NPs on an electrode surface at room temperature in a dry process. NP printing is performed as a post-process step to enhance the electrochemical characteristics of graphene electrodes. The NP-printed electrode shows significant improvements in impedance, charge storage capacity (CSC), and charge injection capacity (CIC), versus the equivalent electrodes without NPs. Specifically, electrodes with 40% NP surface density demonstrate 4.5 times lower impedance, 15 times higher CSC, and 4 times better CIC. Electrochemical stability, assessed via continuous cyclic voltammetry (CV) and voltage transient (VT) tests, indicated minimal deviations from the initial performance, while mechanical stability, assessed via ultrasonic vibration, is also improved after the NP printing. Importantly, NP surface densities up to 40% maintain the electrode optical transparency required for compatibility with optical imaging and optogenetics. These results demonstrate selective NP deposition and local modification of electrochemical properties in neural electrodes for the first time, enabling the cohabitation of graphene electrodes with different electrochemical and optical characteristics on the same substrate.
Wouter Serdijn, Vasiliki Giagka
Surface modification of multilayer graphene neural electrodes, platinum, nanoparticle